Quick Guide Hospital departments

It is very essential for a Common man to be informed and aware of various departments within a hospital and their functions so that he is always at better position for reaching out correct help without any much trouble while visiting a hospital. Here is the quick guide to core hospital departments along with their functions.

1). Cardiology:

  • The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease
  • The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists.

2). Neurology:

The branch of medical science that deals with the nervous system and disorders affecting it.Neurology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities. It has two major divisions:

  • Central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord
  • Peripheral nervous system: all other neural elements, such as eyes, ears, skin, and other “sensory receptors”

A doctor who specializes in neurology is called a neurologist. The neurologist treats disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, such as:

  • Cerebrovascular(Of or relating to the brain and the blood vessels that supply it) disease, such as stroke
  • Demyelinating(Destroy the myelin sheath of nerve fibres) diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis
  • Headache disorders
  • Infections of the brain and peripheral nervous system
  • Movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease
  • Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
  • Seizure disorders, such as epilepsy
  • Spinal cord disorders
  • Speech and language disorders

Neurologists do not perform surgery. If one of their patients requires surgery, they refer them to a neurosurgeon.

3). Ophthalmology:

  • The branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, functions, pathology, and treatment of the eye. As a medical doctor, an ophthalmologist is licensed to practice medicine and surgery. An ophthalmologist diagnoses and treats all eye diseases, performs eye surgery and prescribes and fits eyeglasses and contact lenses.
  • Optometrist is an allied health professional who tests eyes and prescribes lenses to correct sight problems.
  • An optician is a health care professional who is trained and licensed to make corrective lenses, adjust and repair spectacles, and fit contact lenses, He use prescriptions supplied by ophthalmologists or optometrists, but do not test vision or write prescriptions for visual corrections.

4). Orthopedics:

  • The medical specialty concerned with the preservation, restoration, and development of form and function of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, spine, and associated structures by medical, surgical, and physical methods.
  • Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal  trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.

5). Nutrition and dietetics:

The branch of therapeutics concerned with the practical application of diet in relation to health and disease. It includes practical application of diet in the prophylaxis(The prevention of disease) and treatment of disease.

hospital departments6). Diagnostic imaging:

  • Medical imaging comprises different imaging modalities and processes such as X-ray, CT Scan,  MRI, Ultrasonography, PET Scan etc. to image human body for diagnostic and treatment purposes.
  • Effective and of good quality imaging is important for further medical decision making and can reduce unnecessary procedures.
  • Imaging for medical purposes involves the services of radiologists, radiographers, medical physicists and biomedical engineers working together as a team for maximum output.
  • Medical imaging, especially X-ray based examinations and ultrasonography, is crucial in every medical setting and at all levels of heath care.

7). Ear nose and throat (ENT):

The medical specialty that deals with diseases of the ear, nose and throat (ENT), also known as Otolaryngology, is the specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, throat, head, face, and neck.

In general, The Diagnostic services / Tests include:

  • Pure tone audiometry – the levels of sound (different noises) that people can hear and Impedance audiometry – to test how the parts of the ear, especially the eardrum are working.
  • Auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiometry – evaluates the electrical activity in the brain stem that happens when a person hears a sound.
  • Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR): is a special type of ABR which is very useful in assessing the hearing levels in babies who need to have hearing aids fitted.
  • Oto-acoustic emission testing (OAE) – a special hearing test that records the sounds that the ear produces. A tiny microphone and speaker are put into the ear canal for this test.
  • Electrocochleography & Videonystagmography are used for evaluating (testing) a person with giddiness.
  • Hearing Aid trial – hearing aid is a small electrical device put into the ear to help people hear
  • Neonatal screening for deafness – testing all newborn babies to see if they are deaf; since January 2010 we perform universal neonatal screening for all the babies born in our hospital.
  • Speech assessment – testing what people say and how well they understand words / language
  • Voice analysis and therapy – done by the audiologists using computer based software.
  • Endoscopy – This is done for patients with problems such as snoring, laryngeal problems causing hoarseness and some throat problems like cancer of the throat. Rigid nasal endoscopy uses an endoscope that does not bend but is straight to look just in the nose. This is done for patients with nose, sinus and nasopharyngeal problems. The pictures can be seen on a monitor, as there is a tiny video camera on the end of the endoscope.

8). Gastroenterology:

  • This speciality is concerned with the diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which include the organs from mouth to anus, along the alimentary canal, including esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver.
  • Physicians practicing in this field are called gastroenterologists.
  • It includes common and important conditions such as colon polyps and cancer, hepatitis(Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin), gastroesophageal reflux (heartburn), peptic ulcer disease, colitis, gallbladder and biliary tract disease, nutritional problems, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and pancreatitis.

9). Nephrology:

The branch of medical science concerned with diseases of the kidneys. The diseases that come under the scope of nephrology include:-

  • Glomerular disorders that affect the tiny filtering systems of the kidneys called the glomerulus
  • Urine abnormalities such as excess excretion of protein, sugar, blood, casts, crystals etc.
  • Tubulointerstitial diseases affecting the tubules in the kidneys
  • Renal vascular diseases affecting the blood vessel networks within the kidneys
  • Renal failure that can be sudden or acute or long term or chronic
  • Kidney and bladder stones
  • Kidney infections
  • Cancers of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra
  • Effects of diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure on kidneys
  • Acid base imbalances
  • Nephrotic syndrome and nephritis
  • ill effects of drugs and toxins on the kidneys
  • Dialysis and its long term complications – dialysis includes hemodialysis as well as peritoneal dialysis
  • Autoimmune diseases including autoimmune vasculitis, lupus, etc.
  • Polycystic kidneys diseases where large cysts or fluid filled sacs are formed within the kidney impairing its functions – this is a congenital and inherited or genetic condition
  • Hydronephrosis

10). Gynaecology:

It deals with the diseases of the female reproductive organs, including the breasts. Unlike most specialties in medicine, gynecology encompasses surgical and nonsurgical expertise. It is frequently studied and practiced in conjunction with obstetrics.

11). Haematology:

The medical specialty that pertains to the anatomy, physiology, pathology, symptomatology, and therapeutics related to blood and blood-forming tissues.

12). Neonatal unit:

It is an intensive-care unit specializing in the care of ill or premature newborn infants.

13). Urology:

The medical specialty concerned with the urinary system in both male and female and the genital organs in the male.

14). Rheumatology:

  • The study of disorders characterized by inflammation, degeneration of connective tissue, and related structures of the body. These disorders are sometimes collectively referred to as rheumatism.
  • Rheumatologists deal mainly with clinical problems involving  joints, soft tissues, auto immune diseases, vasculitis(Inflammation of a blood vessel), and heritable connective tissue disorders.

15). Occupational therapy:

“Occupation”, refers to practical and purposeful activities that allow people to live independently and have a sense of identity. This could be essential day-to-day tasks such as self-care, work or leisure. Occupation therapy is the use of treatments to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a physical, mental or developmental condition.

16). Physiotherapy:

Therapy that uses physical agents: exercise and massage and other modalities for the promotion of mobility, functional ability, quality of life.

17). Oncology:

The branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of tumors.

Oncology is concerned with:

  • The diagnosis of any cancer in a person (pathology)
  • Therapy (e.g. surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other modalities)
  • Follow-up of cancer patients after successful treatment
  • Palliative Care of patients with terminal malignancies
  • Ethical questions surrounding cancer care
  • Screening efforts:
    • of populations, or
    • of the relatives of patients (in types of cancer that are thought to have a hereditary basis, such as breast cancer)

18). Radiotherapy:

  • The treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance, hence using ionizing radiation, to control or kill radiosensitive malignant cells. Radiation therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body.
  • Before treatment, a CT scan is often performed to identify the tumor and surrounding normal structures. The patient is then sent for a simulation so that molds can be created to be used during treatment. The patient receives small skin marks to guide the placement of treatment fields.

19). Dermatology:

Dermatology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the skin, hair, and nails. It also focuses on maintaining the health of your skin.

References and Further reading:

https://www.sfh.med.sa/English/GeneralInfo/Pages/HospitalDepartments.aspx

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Healthtard

Healthtard

Pradeep completed his Masters in Clinical Engineering from IIT Madras and he likes to share the care! To know about him and his projects click here!

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